The status quo of China’s power battery industrialization
At present, China has formed a complete lithium-ion power battery industry chain system including key raw materials (positive electrodes, negative electrodes, separators, electrolytes, etc.), power batteries, system integration, demonstration applications, recycling, production equipment, basic research and development, etc. And mastered the formula design, structural design and manufacturing process technology of power batteries, and the production line gradually transitioned from semi-automatic pilot test to fully automatic large-scale manufacturing technology. Large-scale production of 10A·h, 20A·h, 86A·h, 120A·h and 200A·h aluminum alloy square shell energy type lithium iron phosphate power battery has a specific energy of 120~140W·h/kg; the mass-produced 5A·h 32650 cylindrical lithium iron phosphate power battery has a specific energy of 130W·h/kg; the large-scale production of 35A·h energy and power balance type lithium manganate power battery (mixed nickel diamond manganese ternary material) has a specific energy of 135W·h/kg; the specific energy of the large-scale production of 6.5A·h power lithium manganese battery (mixed nickel diamond manganese ternary material) has reached 81W·h/kg; the specific energy of the large-scale production of 2.6A·h energy ternary material 18650 cylindrical power battery has reached 200W·h/kg.
Great progress and breakthroughs have been made in system integration technology and capabilities. The specific energy of the power battery system using lithium iron phosphate material reaches about 90W·h/kg, and the specific energy of the power battery system using ternary materials (18650 cylindrical power battery) reaches 110W·h/kg, and the cycle life exceeds the warranty requirements of 5 years/100,000 km.
At present, China has formed four major power battery industrialization clusters mainly in the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Central Plains and the Beijing-Tianjin region. According to statistics, nearly 100 power battery companies have carried out research and development and industrialization of power batteries, and have invested nearly 10 billion in industrial capital to form an annual production capacity of nearly 2×1010W·h. Significant progress in technology R&D and industrialization has strongly supported the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry. In 2017, with the rapid development of the domestic new energy vehicle market, power batteries are in short supply. Domestic battery companies represented by BYD, Times New Energy, Lishen, BAK, Waterma, Guoxuan and Mengguli, etc. All are making large-scale investment and expansion.
China’s national plan for power batteries
The Ministry of science and Technology issued the major electric vehicle project of the 13th five year plan (2016-2020), which provided technical research and development support for high-power power battery for hybrid power, high-energy lithium-ion power battery for pure electric drive, new lithium-ion battery and new system battery for next-generation pure electric drive.
The State Council issued the National Plan for Energy-saving and New Energy Vehicles (2012-2020), which outlines the roadmap for power batteries, focusing on supporting the industrialization of power batteries and the standardization of battery modules, as shown in Figure 1.
In the national “13th Five-Year” plan, a special new energy vehicle research and development project (2016-2020) has been established. In terms of power battery, support is provided from six aspects: new material system of power battery, high specific energy lithium-ion battery, high-power long-life battery, power battery system, high specific energy secondary battery, test and evaluation, so as to improve the technical level of lithium-ion battery, achieve specific energy of 300W·h / kg, and realize batch application, and carry out the technical development of new lithium-ion batteries, with a specific energy of 400W·h / kg. Carry out the technical development of new system batteries, with a specific energy of 500W·h / kg.
Countries represented by China, the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Germany have formed a development system of production, education and research, and actively carry out research and development of lithium-ion power batteries, which are mainly manifested in the following three levels.
(1) Practical technology of lithium-ion batteries (recent research on industrialization technology).
(2) High-performance technology of new lithium-ion battery technology (research on performance improvement in the near and mid-term).
(3) Innovative battery series with substantial high-performance technology (medium and long-term exploratory theoretical research).