The United States is a pioneer in the development and development of pure electric vehicles. As early as July 1976, the US Congress passed an decree on the development and prototype trials of new energy electric vehicles. It intends to accelerate the development of electric vehicles by means of legislation, government funding, and financial subsidies. . In 1996, General Motors launched the first pure electric vehicle EV1, using lead-acid batteries provided by Deco, with a maximum driving range of 144km and a maximum speed of 128km per hour. However, due to the high price, short driving range and long charging time, GM EV1 has been discontinued after a short time on the market. The research and development of electric vehicles has aroused people’s attention to electric vehicles once again in history, and started the wave of diversified pure electric vehicle development in recent years. Figure 1 shows the GM EV1 pure electric vehicle.
Tesla was established in 2003 in Silicon Valley, California, USA, and began research on electric vehicles, which also put pressure on the world’s major traditional diesel locomotive companies. When Tesla launched its first electric car, the Roadster, in 2008, it has already attracted a lot of attention, with a driving range of up to 394km and an acceleration of 3.7s per 100km. Subsequently, Tesla Model S and Model X were also unveiled. Model S is the world’s first dual electric motor car, equipped with Panasonic 18650 lithium battery, driving range up to 507km, top speed up to 249km, and starting speed up to 96km in 2.5 seconds. In addition, Tesla Model 3 has also begun mass production. As a luxury electric car manufacturer, Tesla has led the development of the world’s electric car industry. Figure 2 shows the Tesla Model S pure electric vehicle.
European countries that have always attached great importance to environmental protection are also vigorously developing pure electric vehicles. In 2016, the sales of electric vehicles reached 500,000, leading the electric vehicle market. Renault ZOE pure electric vehicles are loved by Europeans due to their compactness, lightness, flexible rental methods, and low prices. The 2016 new Renault ZOE electric vehicles upgrade the power system and use LG high-energy density batteries to reduce the quality of the vehicle, the maximum driving range can reach 320km. Figure 3 shows the Renault ZOE electric car.
In the development of pure electric vehicles, BMW of Germany also complied with market and policy demands and launched its first pure electric vehicle, BMW i3, in 2013, as shown in Figure 4. As a luxury pure electric vehicle, the 2017 upgraded BMW i3 pure electric vehicle is equipped with a battery pack with greater energy density, and the cruising range can reach 450km. At the same time, BMW continues to expand the production of pure electric vehicles. At that time, it was planned to produce MINI’s first pure electric vehicle in 2019, and a BMW X3 pure electric vehicle model will be regenerated in 2020. Both models will be manufactured at the Leipzig plant in Germany. In addition, BMW will also produce the “BMW iNEXT pure electric” model in 2021, which will be produced at the plant in Dingolfing, Germany.
With the vigorous promotion of the government and car companies, Japan’s domestic electric vehicle market has developed by leaps and bounds. As the world’s best-selling electric vehicle and the world’s first economical zero-emission vehicle, the Nissan Leaf (LEAF), as a classic model of Nissan, has become the world’s largest-selling pure electric vehicle. From its launch at the end of 2010 to July 2017, the global sales volume of the Leaf has exceeded 280,000 vehicles. The 2018 Leaf has added a fast charging function and is equipped with two modes of charging ports. The fast charge interface only needs 40 minutes to charge to 80%, the slow charge interface requires 16 hours to charge with a 3kW charger, and it only takes 8 hours to charge with a 6kW charger. In addition, the 2018 Nissan Leaf also provides a V2G (vehicle-to-grid) function. All vehicles can be connected to the grid and output electrical energy in the reverse direction to the grid. It is also equipped with an xStorage energy storage system, which is more energy-efficient and economical, as shown in Figure 5.